Home of the massive Cerrejon coal mine, Colombia is the world’s tenth largest producer of hard coal and the fourth largest exporter of coal, based on 2009 data. Most exports from the country are shipped to European markets.
Colombia’s coal mines have been the site of numerous human rights violations, including displacement of communities and murders of workers and union organizers by United Self Defense Forces of Colombia, and paramilitary group hired by Drummond Ltd.
Most exports from South American mines are routed through terminals on the Atlantic coast, including six ports in Colombia and one port in Venezuela. On the Pacific coast, the sole export terminal is Puerto De Mamonal, on the north coast of Colombia.